A man who is by law deprived of his liberty for life, and becomes the property of another.
2. A slave has no political rights, and generally has no civil rights
. He can enter into no contract unless specially authorized by law; what he acquires generally, belongs to his master. The children of female slaves follow the condition of their mothers, and are themselves slaves.
3. In Maryland, Missouri and Virginia slaves are declared by statute to be personal estate
, or treated as such. Anth. Shep. To. 428, 494; Misso. Laws, 558. In Kentucky, the rule is different, and they are considered real estate. 1 Kty. Rev. Laws, 566 1 Dana's R. 94.
4. In general a slave is considered a thing and not a person; but sometimes he is considered as a person; as when he commits a crime; for example, two white persons
and a slave can commit a riot. 1 McCord, 534. See Person.
5. A slave may acquire his freedom in various ways: 1. By manumission, by deed or writing, which must be made according to the laws of the state where the master then acts. 1 Penn. 10; 1 Rand. 15. The deed may be absolute which gives immediate freedom to the slave, or conditional giving him immediate freedom, and reserving a right of service for a time to come; 6 Rand. 652; or giving him his freedom as soon as a certain condition shall have been fulfilled. 2 Root, 364; Coxe, 4. 2. By manumission by will. When there is an express emancipation by will, the slave will be free, and the testator's real estate shall be charged with the payment of his debts, if there be not enough personal property without the sale of the slaves. 9 Pet. 461
. See Harper, R. 20. The manumission
by will may be implied, as, where the master devises property real
or personal to his slave. 2 Pet; 670; 5 Har. & J. 190. 3. By the removal
of the slave with the consent of the master, animo morandi
, into one of the United States where slavery
is forbidden by law; 2 Mart
. Lo. Rep. N. J. 401; or when he sojourns there longer than is allowed by the law of the state. 7 S. & R. 378; 1 Wash
. C. C. Rep. 499. Vide Stroud on Slavery
; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; and as to the rights of one who, being free, is held as a slave, 2 Gilman, 1; 3 Yeates, 240.