What is Recusation?

Legal Definition
Civ. law. A plea or exception by which the defendant requires that the judge having jurisdiction of the cause, should abstain from deciding upon the ground of interest, or for a legal objection to his prejudice.

2. A recusation is not a plea to the jurisdiction of the court, but simply to the person of the judge. It may, however, extend to all the judges, as when the party has a suit against the whole court. Poth. Proced. Civ. 1ere part., ch. 2, s. 5. It is a personal challenge of the judge for cause.

3. It is a maxim of every good system of law, that a man shall not be judge in his own cause. 2 L. R. 390; 6 L. R. 134 Ayl. Parerg. 451; Dict. de Jur. h. t.; Merl. Repert. h. t.; vide Jacob's Intr. to the Com. Civ. and Can. L. 11; 8 Co. 118 Dyer, 65. Dall. Diet. h. t.

4. By recusation is also understood the challenge of jurors. Code of Practice of Louis. art. 499, 500. Recusation is also an act, of what nature soever it may be, by which a strange heir, by deeds or words, declares he will not be heir. Dig. 29, 2, 95. See, generally, 1 Hopk. Ch. R. 1; 5 Mart. Lo. R. 292; and Challenge.
-- Bouviers Law Dictionary
Legal Definition
In the civil law. A species of exception or plea to the jurisdiction, to the effect that the particular judge is disqualified from hearing the cause by reason of interest or prejudice. Poth. Proc. Civ lie, pt. 1, c. 2, ยง 5. The challenge of jurors. Code Prac. La. arts. 499, 500. An act, of what nature soever it may be, by which a strange heir, by deeds or words, declares he will not be heir. Dig. 29, 2, 95.
-- Black's Law Dictionary
Legal Definition
An exception to the qualification of a judge to try the cause or to that of a witness to testify.
-- Ballentine's Law Dictionary