What is Net Realizable Value?

Legal Definition
Net realizable value (NRV) is a method of evaluating a fixed or current asset's worth when held in inventory, in the field of accounting. NRV is part of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) that apply to valuing inventory, so as to not overstate or understate the value of inventory goods. Net realizable value is generally equal to the selling price of the inventory goods less the selling costs (completion and disposal). Therefore, it is expected sales price less selling costs (e.g. repair and disposal costs). NRV prevents overstating or understating of an assets value. NRV is the price cap when using the Lower of Cost or Market Rule.

Under IFRS, companies need to record the cost of their Ending Inventory at the lower of cost and NRV, to ensure that their inventory and income statement are not overstated (under ASPE, companies record the lower of cost and market value). For example, under IFRS, at a company's year end, if an unfinished good that already cost $25 is expected to sell for $100 to a customer, but it will take an additional $20 to complete and $10 to advertise to the customer, its NRV will be $100-$20-$10=$70. In this year's income statement, since the cost of the good ($25) is less than its NRV ($70), the cost of the good will get recorded as the cost of inventory. In next year's income statement after the good was sold, this company will record a revenue of $100, Cost of Goods Sold of $25, and Cost of Completion and Disposal of $20+$10=$30. This leads to a profit of $100-$25-$30=$45 on this transaction.
-- Wikipedia
Legal Definition
Inventory or receivables valuation's financial accounting calculation. Calculated for inventory accounting as: sold asset's expected return minus asset's sale expenses. Calculated for receivables accounting as: amount due minus outstanding balance recovery cost.