An act for the relief and civilization of the Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota
(51st-1st-Ex.Doc.247; 25 Stat. 642), commonly known as the Nelson Act of 1889
, was a United States federal law intended to relocate all the Anishinaabe people in Minnesota to the White Earth Indian Reservation
in the western part of the state, and to expropriate the vacated reservations for sale to European Americans.
Approved by Congress on January 14, 1889, the Nelson Act was the equivalent for reservations in Minnesota to the Dawes Act
of 1887, which had mandated allotting communal Indian lands to individual households in Indian Country
, and selling the surplus
. The goal of the Nelson Act was to consolidate Native Americans within the state of Minnesota on a western reservation, and, secondly, to encourage allotment
of communal lands to individual households in order to encourage subsistence farming and assimilation
. It reflected continuing
tensions between whites and American Indians in the state. Especially after the Dakota Conflict of 1862, many Minnesota white residents were eager to consolidate the reservations, reduce the amount of land controlled by Indians and make the surplus available for sale and settlement by European Americans.
Minnesota congressmen Knute Nelson pushed for the allotment of Ojibwe lands in Northern Minnesota and sale of "surplus" to non-Natives. He and others intended to force the Ojibwe to relinquish most of their reservation lands. The intention was to relocate the peoples to the westernmost White Earth Reservation. All would receive individual allotments, with the remainder
to be available for sale to European Americans. These actions were illegal and violated the treaties which the US had made with the tribes, but the government proceeded anyway. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa were able to keep the southern portion of their Reservation adjacent
to Red Lake.