Pleading. In manner and form. These words are used in tendering an issue in a civil case.
2. Their legal effect is to put in
issue all material circumstances and no other, they may therefore be always used with safety.
3. These words are sometimes of the substance of the issue and sometimes merely words of form. When they are of the substance of the issue, they put in issue the circumstances alleged as concomitants of the principal matter denied by the pleader
, such as time, place, manner, &c. When not of the substance of the issue they do not put in issue such circumstances. Bac. Ab. Plea, G 1; Lawes' Pl. 120; Hardr. 39. To determine when they are of the substance of the issue and when not so, the established criterion is, that when the circumstances of manner, time, place, &c. alleged in connexion with the principal fact
traversed, are originally and, in themselves material, and therefore necessary to be proved as stated, the words modo et forma
are of the substance of the issue, and do, consequently
, put those concomitants in issue; but that when such concomitants or circumstances are not in themselves material, and therefore not necessary to be proved as stated, the words modo et forma, are not of the substance of the issue, and consequently do not put them in issue. Lawes on Pl. 120; and see Gould, Pl. c. 6, 22; Steph. Pl. 213; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Kitch. 232. See Bac. Ab. Verdict
, P; Vin. Ab. Modo et Forma