What is Medical Jurisprudence?

Legal Definition
Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, and in the field of law. As modern medicine is a legal creation, regulated by the state, and medicolegal cases involving death, rape, paternity, etc. require a medical practitioner to produce evidence and appear as an expert witness, these two fields have traditionally been interdependent.

Forensic medicine, which includes forensic pathology, is a narrower field that involves collection and analysis of medical evidence (samples) to produce objective information for use in the legal system.
-- Wikipedia
Legal Definition
That science which applies the principles and practice of the different branches of medicine to the elucidation of doubtful questions in courts of justice. By some authors, it is used in a more extensive sense and also comprehends Medical Police, or those medical precepts which may prove useful to the legislature or the magistracy. Some authors, instead of using the phrase medical jurisprudence, employ, to convey the same idea, those of legal medicine, forensic medicine, or, as the Germans have it, state medicine.

2. The best American writers on this subject are Doctors T. R. Beck and J. B. Beck, Elements of Medical Jurisprudence; Doctor Thomas Cooper; Doctor James S. Stringham, who was the first individual to deliver a course of lectures on medical jurisprudence, in this country; Doctor Charles Caldwell. Among the British writers may be enumerated Doctor John Gordon Smith; Doctor Male; Doctor Paris and Mr. Fonblanque, who published a joint work; Mr. Chitty, and Dr. Ryan. The French writers are numerous; Briand, Biessy, Esquirol, Georget, Falret, Trebuchet, Mare, and others, have written treatises or published papers on this subject; the learned Fodere published a work entitled "Les Lois eclairees par les sciences physiques ou TraitÇ de MÇdÇcine LÇgale et d'hygiÇne publique;" the "Annale d'hygiÇne et de MÇdÇcine Legale," is one of the most valued works on this subject. Among the Germans may be found Rose's Manual on Medico Legal Dissection; Metzger's Principles of Legal Medicine, and others. The reader is referred for a list of authors and their works on Medical Jurisprudence, to Dupin, Profession d'Avocat, tom. ii., p. 343, art. 1617 to 1636, bis. For a history of the rise and progress of Medical Jurisprudence, see Traill, Med. Jur. 13.
-- Bouviers Law Dictionary
Legal Definition
The science which applies the principles and practice of the different branches of medicine to the elucidation of doubtful questions in a court of justice. Otherwise called "forensic medicine," (q. v.) A sort of mixed science, which may be considered as common ground to the practitioners both of law and physic. 1 Steph. Comm. 8.
-- Black's Law Dictionary
Legal Definition
That part of the science of medicine which has to do with the law.
-- Ballentine's Law Dictionary