What is Liquidation?

Legal Definition
In United Kingdom and United States law and business, liquidation is the process by which a company (or part of a company) is brought to an end, and the assets and property of the company are redistributed. Liquidation is also sometimes referred to as winding-up or dissolution, although dissolution technically refers to the last stage of liquidation. The process of liquidation also arises when customs, an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties, determines the final computation or ascertainment of the duties or drawback accruing on an entry.

Liquidation may either be compulsory (sometimes referred to as a creditors' liquidation) or voluntary (sometimes referred to as a shareholders' liquidation, although some voluntary liquidations are controlled by the creditors, see below).
-- Wikipedia
Legal Definition
1. The act of calculating liabilities and distributing assets, especially of a business that is being wound up.

2. The act of determining the cash value of some debt or damage. The parties involved essentially reduce their legal conflict or outstanding debts to a dollar amount. Debts and damages can be liquidated in various ways: by an agreement before any dispute arises, by an agreement after a dispute arises, or by litigation.
Legal Definition
The act or process of settling or making clear, fixed, and determinate that which before was uncertain or unascertained. As applied to a company, (or sometimes to the affairs of an individual,) liquidation is used in a broad sense as equivalent to "winding up;" that is, the comprehensive process of settling accounts, ascertaining and adjusting debts, collecting assets, and paying off claims.
-- Black's Law Dictionary
Legal Definition
Payment. See 8 Wheat. (U. S.) 338, 5 L. Ed. 631. A winding up of an insolvent corporation or partnership.
-- Ballentine's Law Dictionary