What is Health?

Legal Definition
Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete". Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.
-- Wikipedia
Legal Definition
Broadly defined, health law includes the law of public health, health care generally, and medical care specifically. Preserving public health is a primary duty of the state. Health regulations and laws are therefore almost all administered at the state level. Many states delegate authority to subordinate governmental agencies such as boards of health. These boards are created by legislative acts.

Federal health law focuses on the activity of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It administers a wide variety of agencies and programs, like providing financial assistance to needy individuals; conducting medical and scientific research; providing health care and advocacy services; and enforcing laws and regulations related to human services. An important part of the HHS are the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, which oversee the Medicare and Medicaid Programs. Their goal is to ensure that elderly and needy individuals receive proper medical care.

Private health insurance originated with the Blue Cross system in 1929. The underlying principle was to spread the risk of high hospitalization bills between all individuals. Whether sick or healthy, all school teachers and hospital employees in the Dallas area had to join, ensuring that the risk was spread through a large number of individuals. Blue Shield was later developed under the same principle.

Today, many people receive health care through health maintenance organizations (HMO's). Managed care essentially creates a triangle relationship between physician, patient, and payer. Physicians are paid a flat per-member per-month fee for basic health care services, regardless of whether the patient seeks those services. The risk that a patient is going to require significant treatment shifts from the insurance company to the physicians under this model. Because of the importance of the industry, HMO's are heavily regulated. On the federal level the Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973 governs.
Legal Definition
Freedom from pain or sickness; the most perfect state of animal life. It may be defined, the natural agreement and concordant dispositions of the parts of the living body.

2. Public health is an object of the utmost importance and has attracted the attention of the national and state legislatures.

3. By the act of Congress of the 25th of February, 1799, 1 Story's L. U. S. 564, it is enacted: 1. That the quarantines and other restraints, which shall be established by the laws of any state, respecting any vessels arriving in or bound to any port or district thereof, whether coming from a foreign port or some other part of the United States, shall be observed and enforced by all officers of the United States, in such place. Sect. 1. 2. In times of contagion the collectors of the revenue may remove, under the provisions of the act, into another district. Sect. 4. 3. The judge of any district court may, when a contagious disorder prevails in his district, cause the removal of persons confined in prison under the laws of the United States, into another district. Sect. 5. 4. In case of the prevalence of a contagious disease at the seat of government, the president of the United States may direct the removal of any or all public offices to a place of safety. Sect. 6. 5. In case of such contagious disease, at the seat of government, the chief justice, or in case of his death or inability, the senior associate justice of the supreme court of the United States, may issue his warrant to the marshal of the district court within which the supreme court is by law to be holden, directing him to adjourn the said session of the said court to such other place within the same or adjoining district as he may deem convenient. And the district judges may, under the same circumstances, have the same power to adjourn to some other part of their several districts. Sect. 7.

3. Offences against the provisions of the health laws are generally punished by fine and imprisonment. These are offences against public health, punishable by the common law by fine and imprisonment, such for example, as selling unwholesome provisions. 4 Bl. Com. 162; 2 East's P. C.822; 6 East, R.133 to 141; 3 M. & S. 10; 4 Campb. R. 10.

4. Private injuries affecting a man's health arise upon a breach of contract, express or implied; or in consequence of some tortions act unconnected with a contract.

5. - 1. Those injuries to health which arise upon contract are, 1st. The misconduct of medical men, when, through neglect, ignorance, or wanton experiments, they injure their patients. 1 Saund. 312, n. 2. 2d. By the sale of unwholesome food; though the law does not consider a sale to be a warranty as to the goodness or quality of a personal chattel, it is otherwise with regard to food and liquors. 1 Rolle's Ab. 90, pl. 1, 2.

6.-2. Those injuries which affect a man's health, and which arise from tortious acts unconnected with contracts, are, 1st. Private nuisances. 2d. Public nuisances. 3d. Breaking quarantine. 4th. By sudden alarms, and frightening; as by raising a pretended ghost. 4 Bl. Com. 197, 201, note 25;1 Hale, 429; Smith's Forens. Med. 37 to 39; 1 Paris & Fonbl. 351, 352. For private injuries affecting his health a man may generally have an action on the case.
-- Bouviers Law Dictionary
Legal Definition
Freedom from sickness or suffering. The right to the enjoyment of health is a subdivision of the right of personal security, one of the absolute rights of persons. 1 Bl. Comm. 129, 134. As to injuries affecting health, sce 3 Bl. Comm. 122.
See also
-- Black's Law Dictionary
Legal Definition
Freedom from disease. See 45 N. J. L. 310, 46 Am. Rep. 772.
-- Ballentine's Law Dictionary