The Fair Employment Practice Committee
) was created in 1941 in the United States to implement Executive Order
8802 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, "banning discriminatory employment practices by Federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work." This was shortly before the United States entered World War II. The EO also required Federal vocational
and training programs to be administered without discrimination
. Established in the Office of Production Management
, the FEPC was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the homefront industry during World War II. In practice, especially in its later years, the Committee also tried
to open up more skilled jobs in industry to minorities, who had often been restricted to the lowest-level work. The FEPC appeared to have contributed to substantial economic improvements
among black men during the 1940s by helping them gain entry to more skilled and higher-paying positions in defense-related industries.
In January 1942 after the US entry into World War II, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9040 to establish the War Production Board, which replaced the Office of Production Management, and put the FEPC under it answering to the War Manpower
Commission. The new Board, concentrating on converting the domestic economy to a wartime footing, slashed the Committee's limited budget.
In response to strong support for the FEPC and a threatened march on the capital, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9346 in May 1943. This gave the FEPC independent status within the Office of the President, established 12 regional offices, and widened its jurisdiction to all federal agencies, in addition to those directly involved in defense. It was put within the President's Office of Emergency
Management. Analysis of the incomes of blacks who gained entree into the defense industries compared to men outside, showed that they benefited from the higher wages and generally retained their jobs in the early postwar years through 1950.