In Roman law. An agreement bstween parties; a pact. A convention was a mutual engagement between two persons, possessing all the subjective requisites of a contract, but which did not give rise to an action, nor receive the sanction of the law, as bearing an "obligation," until the objective requisite of a solemn ceremonial, (such as stipulatio) was supplied. In other words, convention was the informal agreement of the parties, which formed the basis of a contract, and which became a contract when the external formalities were superimposed. See Maine, Anc. Law, 313.
"The division of conventions into contracts and pacts was important in the Roman law. The former were such conventions as already, by the older civil law, founded an obligation and action ; all the other conventions were termed 'pacts.' These generally did not produce an actionable obligation. Actionability was subsequently given to several pacts, whereby they received the same power and efficacy that contracts received." Mackeld. Rom. Law, § 395.
In English law. An extraordinary assembly of the houses of lords and commons, without the assent or summons of the sovereign. It can only be justified ex necessitate rei, as the parliament which restored Charles II., and that which disposed of the crown and kingdom to William and Mary. Wharton. Also the name of an old writ that lay for the breach of a covenant. In legislation. An assembly of delegates or representatives chosen by the people for special and extraordinary legislative purposes, such as the framing or revision of a state constitution. Also an assembly of delegates chosen by a political party, or by the party organization in a larger or smaller territory, to nominatae candidates for an approaching election. State v. Metcalf, 18 S. D. 393, 100 N. W. 925, 67 L. R. A. 331; State v. Tooker, 18 Mont. 540, 46 Pac. 530, 34 L. R. A. 315; Schafer v. Whipple, 25 Colo. 400, 55 Pac. 180.
. See Constitution.
In public and international law. A pact or agreement between states or nations in' the nature of a treaty; usually applied (a) to agreements or arrangements preliminary to a formal treaty or to serve as its basis, or (b) international agreements for the regulation of matters of common interest but not coming within the sphere of politica or commercial intercourse, such as international postage or the protection of submarine cables. U. S. Comp. St. 1901, p. 3589; U. S. v. Hunter (C. C.) 21 Fed. 615.