What is By?

Legal Definition
This word, when descriptively used in a grant, does not mean "in immediate contact with," but "near" to, the object to which it relates; and "near" is a relative term, meaning, when used in land patents, very unequal and different distances. Wells v. Mfg. Co., 48 N. H. 491. A contract to complete work by a certain time, means that it shall be done before that time. Rankin v. Woodworth, 3 Pen. & W. (Pa.) 48. By an acquittance for the last payment all other arrearages are discharged. Noy, 40.