Branding national myths and symbols
, or BNMS
, is a field of research focusing on branding and marketing of a nation's myths and symbols. The research blends the theories of marketing, cultural communications, sociology, public relations
, and semiotics. The awareness
of a nation’s (or a collective group’s) internal myths and symbols may result in raising cultural relations between nations, according to this theory. The use dates from before the 1990, and field of study dates from about 2000, but was not given this moniker by a scholar until 2009.
The principles of BNMS
are related to, but are different from Nation branding. The main difference between two principles is that nation branding
is primarily concerned with raising the global image of a nation for better economic return, while BNMS
is concerned with the revealing and demonstrating the meanings behind a nation’s internal myths and symbols. In other words, nation branding
is the selling or promotion
of the external identity of a nation, while BNMS
is the revealing of their internal identity, either for its own citizens to believe in, or to achieve better global relations between nations. According to the theory, each national myth and symbol
has its own hidden meanings that may reinforce these misunderstanding
Examples of BNMS include changing the symbols on currency, a national anthem (see, e.g.
, National Anthem Project by the United States), and advertising in political campaigns.