Practice. The statement in writing, of the objection made by a party in a cause, to the decision of the court on a point of law
, which, in confirmation of its accuracy, is signed and sealed by the judge, or court who made the decision. The object of the bill of exceptions is to put the question of law
on record, for the information of the court of error
having cognizance of such cause.
2. The bill of exception is authorized by the statute of Westminster 2, 13 Ed. I. c. 31, the principles of which have, been adopted in all the states of the Union. It is thereby enacted, "when one impleaded before any of the justices, alleges an exception praying they will allow it, and if they will not, if he that alleges the exception writes the same, and requires 'that the justices will put their seals, the justices shall do so, and if one will not, another ,shall; and if, upon complaint made of the justice, the king cause the record to come before him, and the exception be not found
in the roll, and the plaintiff show the written exception, with the seal of the justices thereto put, the justice shall be commande to appear at a certain day, either to confess or deny his seal, and if he cannot deny his seal, they shall proceed to judgment according to the exception, as it ought to be allowed or disallowed." The statute extends to both plaintiff and defendant. Vide the, form of confessing a bill of exceptions, Burr. 1692. And for precedents see Bull
. N. P. 317; Brownlow's Entries; Latine Redivio, 129; Trials per pais, 222, 3; 4 Yeates, 317, 18; 2 Yeates, 295, 6. 485, 6; 1 Morgan's Vade Mecum, 471-5. Bills of exception differ materially from special verdicts; 2 Bin. 92; and from the opinions of the court filed in the cause. 10 S. & R. 114, 15.
3. Here will be considered, 1 the cases in which a bill of exceptions may be had; 2. the time of making the exception; 3. the form of the bill; 4. the effect of the bill.
4. - 1. In general a bill of exception can be had only in a civil case. When in the course of the trial of a cause, the judge, either in his charge to the jury, or in deciding an interlocutory
question, mistakes the law, or is supposed by the counsel on either. side, to have mistaken the law, the counsel against whom the decision is made may tender an exception to his opinion, and require him to seal a bill of exceptions. 3 Bl. Com. 372. See Salk. 284, pl. 16 7 Serg. & Rawle, 178; 10 Id. 114, 115 Whart. Dig. Error, D, E 1 Cowen, 622; 2 Caines, 168; 2 Cowen, 479 5, Cowen, 243 3 Cranch, 298 4 Cranch, 62; 6 Cranch, 226; 17 Johns. R. 218; 3 Wend. 418 9 Wend. 674. In criminal cases, the judges, it seems, are not required to seal a bill of exceptions. 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 622; 13 John. R. 90; 1 Virg. Cas. 264; 2 Watts, R. 285; 2 Sumn. R. 19. In New York, it is provided by statute, that on the trial of any indictment, exceptions to any decision of the court may be made by the defendant, in the same cases and manner provided by law
in civil cases and a bill thereof shall be settled, signed and sealed, and filed with the clerk of the court
. But such bill of exception shall not stay or delay the rendering of judgment, except in some specified cases. Grah. Pr. 768, note.. Statutory provisions have been made in several other states authorizing the taking of exceptions in criminal cases. 2 Virg. Cas. 60 and note 14 Pick. R. 370; 4 Ham. R. 348; 6 Ham. R. 16 7 Ham. R. 214; 1 Leigh, R. 598; 14 Wend. 546. See also 1 Halst. R. 405; 2 Penn. R. 637.
5. - 2. The bill of exceptions must be tendered at the time the decision complained of is made or if the exception be to the charge of the court, it must be made before the jury have given their verdict. 8 S. & R. 216 4 Dall. 249; S. C. 1 Binn. 38; 6 John. 279; 1 John. 312; 5 Watts, R. 69; 10 John. R. 312; 5 Monr. R. 177; 7 Wend. R. 34; 7 S. & R. 219; 11 S. & R. 267 4 Pet. R. 102; Ala. R. 66; 1 Monr. 215 11 Pet. R. 185; 6 Cowen, R. 189. In practice, however, the, point is merely noted, at the time, and the bill is afterwards settled. 8 S. & R. 216; 11 S. & R. 270; Trials per pais, 467; Salk. 288; Sir T. Ray. 405 Bull. N. P. 315-16; Jacob's Law Dict. They may be sealed by the judge after the record has been removed by a writ of error
, and after the expiration of his office. Fitz
. N. B. 21 N, note.
6. - 3. The bill of exception must be signed by the judge who tried
the cause; which is to be done upon notice of the time and place, when and where
it is to be done. 3 Cowen, 32; 8 Cowen, 766; Bull. N. P. 316 3 Bl. Com. 372. When the bill of exception is sealed, both parties are concluded by lit. 3 Dall. 38; Bull. N. P. 316.
7.- 4. The bill of exceptions, being part of the record, is evidence between the parties, as to the facts therein stated. 3 Burr. 1765. No notice can be taken of objections or exceptions not appearing on the bill. 8 East, 280; 3 Dall. 38, 422, n.; 2 Binn. 168. Vide, generally, Dunlap's Pr.; Grah. Pr.; Tidd's Pr.; Chit. Pr.; Penna. Pr.; Archibold's Pr. Sellon's Pr.; in their several indexes, h. t.; Steph. Pl. 111; Bac. Ab. h. t.; 1 Phil. Ev. 214; 12 Vin. Ab. 262; Code of Pract. of Louisiana, art. 487, 8, 9; 6 Watts & Serg, 386, 397; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3228-32.