One made for assuring the performance of a prior contract, either by the same parties, or by others; such as suretyship, mortgages, and pledges.
2. It is a general rule, that payment of the debt due, or the performance of a thing required to be performed by the first or principal contract, is a full discharge of such accessory obligation
. Poth. Ob
. part. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2, n. 14. Id. n. 182, 186. See 8 Mass. 551; 15 Mass. 233; 17 Mass. 419; 4 Pick. 11; 8 Pick. 522.
3. An accessory agreement to guaranty an original contract, which is void, has no binding effect. 6 Humph. 261. ACCIDENT. The happening of an event without the concurrence
of the will of the person by whose agency it was caused or the happening of an event without any human agency; the burning
of a house in consequence of a fire being made for the ordinary purpose of cooking or warming the house, which is an accident of the first kind; the burning of the same house by lightning would have been an accident of the second kind. 1 Fonb. Eq. 374, 5, note.
2. It frequently happens that a lessee
covenants to repair, in which case he is bound to do so, although the premises be burned down without his fault. 1 Hill. Ab. c. 15, s. 76. But if a penalty be annexed to the covenant, inevitable accident
will excuse the former, though not the latter. 1 Dyer, 33, a. Neither the landlord nor the tenant is bound to rebuild a house burned down, unless it has been so expressly agreed. Amb. 619; 1 T. R. 708; 4 Paige, R. 355; 6 Mass. R. 67; 4 M'Cord
, R. 431; 3 Kent, Com. 373.
3. In New Jersey
, by statute, no action lies against any person on the ground that a fire began in a house or room occupied by him, if accidental. But this does not affect any covenant. 1 N. J. Rev. C. 216.