v. Robinette, 519 U.S.39, 40 (1996) (directing that the “touchstone of Fourth Amendment analysis
is reasonableness”) (quoting Florida v. Jimeno, 500 U.S. 248, 250 (1991)). Thus, we have
emphasized that detention, not questioning, is the focus of the inquiry regarding the permissiveness
of a Terry stop. See United States v. Shabazz, 993 F.2d 431, 436 (5th Cir. 1993). This “requires
district courts to consider the facts and circumstances of each case, giving due regard to the
experience and training of the law enforcement officers, to determine whether the actions taken by
the officers, including the length of the det ention, were reasonable under the circumstances.”
Brigham, 382 F.3d at 507. “Reasonableness, in turn, is measured in objective terms by examining the
totality of the circumstances.” Robinette, 519 U.S. at 39. Thus, a detaining officer “must be able
to articulate something more that an inchoate and unparticularized suspicion or hunch. The Fourth
Amendment requires some minimal level of objective justification for making the stop.” United States
v. Sokolow, 490 U.S. 1, 7 (1989) (internal quotation marks and citation omitted).
In evaluating the reasonableness of a basic traffic stop, the Supreme Court has continuously
directed courts to employ a two-step inquiry in determining whether the stop complied with the
Fourth Amendment boundaries pronounced in Terry v. Ohio:
(1) whether the stop was justified at
its inception; and (2) whether the Fourth Amendment intrusion was reasonably related in scope to the
circumstances that justified the interference in the first place. Sharpe, 470 U.S. at 675-76.
Moreover, “the investigative methods employed should be the least intrusive means reasonably
available to verify or dispel the officer’s suspicion in a short period of time.” Florida v. Royer, 460
U.S. 491, 500 (1983); see also United States v. Valadez, 267 F.3d 395, 398 (5th Cir. 2001); United
States v. Dortch, 199 F.3d 193, 198 (5th Cir. 1993). However, at the point that the purposes of the
392 U.S. 1, 19-20 (1968).